Note: There are different thresholds and categories in defining albuminuria (see table below). Therefore, variability exists in how health care providers and researchers define, assess, and report albuminuria levels.
Typical thresholds for defining proteinuria and albuminuria.
Adapted from the National Kidney Foundation’s KDOQI guidelines for evaluation and stratification of chronic kidney disease (www.kidney.org).
Urine collection method
Proteinuria or Macroalbuminuria
N/A, not applicable.
*Use of the same cutoff for men and women is recommended by the American Diabetes Association guidelines but can result in higher prevalence in women.
**Gender-specific cutoffs are from a single study (Mattix et al., 2002).
The metabolism of food in the body produces acids and bases of varying levels based on diet. The difference between the acids and bases is called the dietary acid load (DAL) or formally, net endogenous acid production (NEAP) and must be buffered or excreted by the body through respiration or urination in order to maintain an acid-base balance.
An equation used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using serum creatinine and variables including age, gender, and race. Estimating equations are used to identify the stage of chronic kidney disease because serum creatinine levels alone cannot accurately reflect kidney function.
GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) = 175 × (calibrated serum creatinine in mg/dl)-1.154 × (age)-0.203 × (0.742 if female) × (1.212 if African American)
1 Stedman’s Online Medical Dictionary: www.stedmans.com
2 Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: www.merriam-webster.com
3 WedMD: www.webmd.com
4 Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients Online Glossary: www.ustransplant.org/glossary.aspx
5 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Healthy People 2010: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, conference ed. in two vols (Washington, D.C., January 2000).
6 American Heart Association: www.americanheart.org
7 MedicineNet: www.medicinenet.com
8 KDOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, Classification, and Stratification: www.kidney.org/professionals/KDOQI/guidelines_ckd/toc.htm
9 Poupin N, Calvex J, Lassale C, et al. Impact of the diet on net endogenous acid production and acid–base balance. Clinical Nutrition. 2012;31: 313-321. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22342140
10 Parsa A, Kao WL, Xie D et al. APOL1 risk variants, race, and progression of chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369(23), 2183-2196. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24206458