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Indicator Details: Age-Adjusted Percentage with Cardiovascular Diseasea
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a CVD was defined as self-report of coronary heart disease, angina, or previous myocardial infarction or stroke.

In 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of CVD in U.S. adults was highest in males (9% vs. 6% in females); in those with obesity (15% vs. 6% in those without obesity); and in non-Hispanic blacks (9% vs. 7% and 6% in non-Hispanic whites and Mexican-Americans).
Chart Explanation: In 2015-2016, the age-adjusted prevalence of CVD consistnently remained higher in males than in females (9.0% vs. 6.2%); as well in adults with obesity (15.4% vs. 5.6% in those without obesity. After adjusting for age, prevalence of CVD was found to be higher in non-Hispanic blacks (8.9%), and lower in Mexican-Americans (5.6%) as compared to non-Hispanic whites (7.1%).
The NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that is currently conducted every 2 years by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics to examine disease prevalence and trends over time in noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian residents.

CVD and CKD are both diseases of the vessels and the two diseases are inextricably linked. Much has been written about CVD and associated morbidity and mortality as a consequence of CKD (e.g., Go et al., 2004); however, there is increasing evidence that the association is bidirectional and that CVD may also be a risk factor for the development of CKD (Menon et al., 2005; Elsayed et al., 2007). The survey consists of a standardized in-home interview and a physical examination and blood and urine collection at a mobile examination center (MEC). Here we examined data from the 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016 NHANES. All forms of CVD (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction/heart attack, cerebrovascular accident/stroke, angina, and congestive heart failure) were self-reported by questionnaire with the question, “Have you ever been told by a doctor or health care provider that you have/had [condition/event]?,” using both technical and lay terms. Note that coronary heart disease was asked separately from myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and angina; those reporting the latter conditions did not necessarily report having coronary heart disease.
Description of MeasurePrevalence of CVD in the general population
Data SourceNCHS
Type of Data SourcePublic
Health Care System DataNo
Regional or National?National
Demographic GroupNon-institutionalized U.S. residents aged 20+ years
NumeratorParticipants 20+ with self-reported CVD from medical conditions questionnaire
DenominatorParticipants 20+ with responses to medical conditions questionnaire
Primary Data Source IndicatorMcq160b-f: “Have you ever been told by a provider that you have CHD, angina, MI, stroke, CHF”
Primary Indicator Method of MeasurementMedical conditions questionnaire (20+ only)
Secondary Data Source IndicatorComposite variable
Secondary Indicator Method of MeasurementComposite of questionnaire variables (excluding CHF)
Frequency of Measurement (Primary)Once (cross-sectional)
U.S. Region Covered by Primary VariableAll
Period Currently Available1999–2016
Pending Data2017-2018
Additional Data Items of Intereststratification variables of interest (age, gender, race/ethnicity, BMI)
Limitations of IndicatorSelf-reported conditions without validation; information on symptoms, fitness, and PVD (ABI) only collected in subsets
Analytic ConsiderationsAppropriate NHANES survey weights must be used for all analyses
Age AdjustmentAdjusted for the distribution of age within the sample.
References and Sources:

Suggested Citation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Kidney Disease Surveillance System—United States.
website. http://www.cdc.gov/ckd