Very few surveyed African-Americans (2.8%) considered CKD to be an important health problem in the African-American community.
Chart Explanation: Very few African-Americans surveyed (3%) named kidney disease as important health problem for their community, compared to hypertension (61%), diabetes (55%), heart disease (45%), cancer (35%), HIV/AIDS (26%), and obesity (7%). Those with kidney disease or one or more of its risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and/or family history of CKD) were more likely than those without risk factors to name hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease as important problems; those without risk factors were more likely to name cancer and HIV/AIDS than those with risk factors. Although 90% of respondents had heard of kidney disease, only 49% were able to provide a correct definition (reduction in kidney function). Knowledge of CKD symptoms and detection was also low: only 13% and 7% of respondents correctly named swelling and proteinuria as symptoms of kidney disease. About one-quarter (24%) knew at least one test to detect kidney disease, including urinalysis, GFR estimation, and creatinine levels.
The National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP; http://www.nkdep.nih.gov/) surveyed 2,017 African-Americans aged 30+ in seven U.S. cities (Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Cleveland, OH; Jackson, MS; New Orleans, LA, St. Louis, MO; Memphis, TN) regarding knowledge of CKD and its risk factors. Females and college graduates were over-represented relative to the U.S. population of African-Americans.
In the period February-April 2003, the National Kidney Disease Education Program (http://www.nkdep.nih.gov/) surveyed 2,017 (of 4,761 eligible households, cooperation rate 42.2%) African-Americans aged 30+ in seven U.S. cities (Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Cleveland, OH; Jackson, MS; New Orleans, LA, St. Louis, MO; Memphis, TN) regarding knowledge of CKD and its risk factors (Waterman, Browne, Waterman, Gladstone, & Hostetter, 2008). Females and college graduates were over-represented (72.4% and 37.9%, respectively) relative to the U.S. population of African-Americans. A total of 903 respondents (44.8%) reported having kidney disease or one or more of its risk factors: 13.4% with diabetes, 34.5% with hypertension, 11.2% with family history of kidney disease, and only 1.1% with kidney disease, indicating that those with kidney disease may be underrepresented in this survey population. Participants were asked several open-ended questions, including: “In your opinion, what are the three most serious health problems facing African-Americans today?”; “Have you ever heard of an illness called kidney disease?”; “Can you tell me what you think kidney disease is?”; “How would someone know they have kidney disease?”; “Do you know what kind of tests a person can have to test for kidney disease?”; “Who do you think is more likely to get kidney disease or is at a higher risk for kidney disease?”. Participants were also asked about their perceived risk: “How would you rate your risk for getting kidney disease? Would you say it is higher than average, lower or about average?”
|Description of Measure||Knowledge of CKD and CKD risk in the African-American community|
|Data Source||National Kidney Disease Education Program|
|Type of Data Source||Private|
|Data Set||Survey results|
|Health Care System Data||No|
|Regional or National?||Regional|
|Demographic Group||African-Americans aged 30+; 72.4% female|
|Numerator||Respondents naming CKD as an important health problem/respondents with risk factors who rated their kidney disease risk as “higher than average”|
|Denominator||All respondents/respondents with risk factors|
|Primary Data Source Indicator||Proportion of African-Americans surveyed who rated CKD as an important health problem/who reported their kidney disease risk “higher than average”|
|Primary Indicator Method of Measurement||Survey (random-digit dialed telephone survey)|
|Frequency of Measurement (Primary)||Once (cross-sectional)|
|U.S. Region Covered by Primary Variable||7 U.S. cities (Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Cleveland, OH; Jackson, MS; New Orleans, LA, St. Louis, MO; Memphis, TN)|
|Period Currently Available||2003|
|Additional Data Items of Interest||Age, gender, education, other risk factors (hypertension, family history)|
|Limitations of Indicator||Urban African-American only, females over-represented; likely survey response bias (42.4% cooperation rate among households reached)|
|Analytical Considerations||Categories lumped due to small groups/missing responses for some questions|
References and Sources:
Waterman AD, Browne T, Waterman BM, Gladstone EH, Hostetter T. Attitudes and behaviors of African Americans regarding early detection of kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;51(4):554-62.