Only one-third (33%) of surveyed African-Americans with diabetes named diabetes as a risk factor for CKD; furthermore, only 17% of those with hypertension and 4% of those with family history named these risk factors for CKD.
Chart Explanation: Although nearly 100% of respondents felt that unmanaged diabetes and hypertension could lead to serious negative effects on their health, only 16.9% and 7.5%, respectively, named kidney disease or failure as one of these consequences. Knowledge of CKD risk factors was generally low, with only 18.1% of all respondents naming African-American race/ethnicity as a CKD risk factor. The figure shows that knowledge of other CKD risk factors is also low, even among those with risk factors. Only 13.6%, 12.2%, and 2.4% named diabetes, hypertension, and family history, respectively, as risk factors for CKD. However, those with the risk factor were more likely than those without the risk factor to name diabetes (32.7% vs. 10.7%; P<0.001), hypertension (17.0% vs. 9.7%; P<0.001), and family history (3.6% vs. 2.2%; P=0.156) as risk factors.
The National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP; http://www.nkdep.nih.gov/) surveyed 2,017 African-Americans aged 30+ in seven U.S. cities (Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Cleveland, OH; Jackson, MS; New Orleans, LA, St. Louis, MO; Memphis, TN) regarding knowledge of CKD and its risk factors. Females and college graduates were over-represented relative to the U.S. population of African-Americans.
In the period February-April 2003, the National Kidney Disease Education Program (http://www.nkdep.nih.gov/) surveyed 2,017 (of 4,761 eligible households, cooperation rate 42.2%) African-Americans aged 30+ in seven U.S. cities (Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Cleveland, OH; Jackson, MS; New Orleans, LA, St. Louis, MO; Memphis, TN) regarding knowledge of CKD and its risk factors (Waterman, Browne, Waterman, Gladstone, & Hostetter, 2008). Females and college graduates were over-represented (72.4% and 37.9%, respectively) relative to the U.S. population of African-Americans. A total of 903 respondents (44.8%) reported having kidney disease or one or more of its risk factors: 13.4% with diabetes, 34.5% with hypertension, 11.2% with family history of kidney disease, and only 1.1% with kidney disease, indicating that those with kidney disease may be underrepresented in this survey population. Participants were asked several open-ended questions, including: “In your opinion, what are the three most serious health problems facing African-Americans today?”; “Have you ever heard of an illness called kidney disease?”; “Can you tell me what you think kidney disease is?”; “How would someone know they have kidney disease?”; “Do you know what kind of tests a person can have to test for kidney disease?”; “Who do you think is more likely to get kidney disease or is at a higher risk for kidney disease?”. Participants were also asked about their perceived risk: “How would you rate your risk for getting kidney disease? Would you say it is higher than average, lower or about average?”
|Description of Measure||Knowledge of CKD and CKD risk in the African-American community|
|Data Source||National Kidney Disease Education Program|
|Type of Data Source||Private|
|Data Set||Survey results|
|Health Care System Data||No|
|Regional or National?||Regional|
|Demographic Group||African-Americans aged 30+; 72.4% female|
|Numerator||Respondents naming CKD as an important health problem/respondents with risk factors who rated their kidney disease risk as “higher than average”|
|Denominator||All respondents/respondents with risk factors|
|Primary Data Source Indicator||Proportion of African-Americans surveyed who rated CKD as an important health problem/who reported their kidney disease risk “higher than average”|
|Primary Indicator Method of Measurement||Survey (random-digit dialed telephone survey)|
|Frequency of Measurement (Primary)||Once (cross-sectional)|
|U.S. Region Covered by Primary Variable||7 U.S. cities (Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Cleveland, OH; Jackson, MS; New Orleans, LA, St. Louis, MO; Memphis, TN)|
|Period Currently Available||2003|
|Additional Data Items of Interest||Age, gender, education, other risk factors (hypertension, family history)|
|Limitations of Indicator||Urban African-American only, females over-represented; likely survey response bias (42.4% cooperation rate among households reached)|
|Analytical Considerations||Categories lumped due to small groups/missing responses for some questions|
References and Sources:
Waterman AD, Browne T, Waterman BM, Gladstone EH, Hostetter T. Attitudes and behaviors of African Americans regarding early detection of kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;51(4):554-62.