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Trends in Prevalence of Albuminuria among U.S. Adults

Trends in Prevalence of Albuminuria among U.S. Adults

The prevalence of albuminuria has remained relatively constant between 2001 and March 2020. The crude prevalence was 10.2% during 2017–March 2020 and 9.4% in 2001–2004 in the general adult population. The crude and age-standardized trend estimates were consistent. The age-standardized prevalence of albuminuria was higher among women, adults aged 70 years or older, non-Hispanic Black, and adults with diabetes, hypertension, or CKD Stages 4 and 5 than their counterparts.

Data Source: NHANES

To view the prevalence of albuminuria by risk categories, select from the drop-down menu below. Risk categories include Overall, Age Category, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, CKD Stage, Diabetes, and Hypertension.

Albuminuria (%), Overall

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Data includes CKD stages 1–5. Age-standardized estimates were standardized to the 2010 U.S. Census population for adults aged ≥ 18 years.

NHANES is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that is currently conducted every two years (since 1999) by CDC's National Center for Health Statistics among noninstitutionalized US civilian residents. The survey consists of a standardized in-home interview and a physical examination with blood and urine collected at a mobile examination center. Data were examined by combining two NHANES cycles to represent four-year periods from 2001 to 2016 and the 2017–March 2020 pre-pandemic cycle. 

Note: Not all NHANES variables are collected for all years; therefore, some NHANES indicators may not utilize the full 20-year span.

Description of Measure

Prevalence of Albuminuria among U.S. Adults.

Data Set

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).


Noninstitutionalized US adults aged ≥ 18 years, pregnant women excluded.

Years Included

2001–March 2020.


U.S. adults aged ≥ 18 years with albuminuria.


U.S. adults aged ≥ 18 years with serum creatinine and urine albumin measurements.

Definition of CKD Stages 3–5

CKD stages 3–5 are defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Stage 3a: eGFR 45–59 ml/min/1.73 m²; stage 3b: eGFR 30–44 ml/min/1.73 m²; stage 4: eGFR 15–29 ml/min/1.73 m²; stage 5: eGFR < 15 ml/min/1.73 m². Estimates are based on single estimates of eGFR and UACR.

Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)

Based on the CKD-EPI (2021) equation for calibrated creatinine: eGFR=142 x [min(serum creatinine in mg/dL) /κ, 1)]**α x [max(serum creatinine/κ, 1)]**-1.20 x 0.9938**age x (1.012 if female).

κ = 0.7 if female and 0.9 if male
α = -0.241 if female and -0.302 if male
** = raise to the power


UACR was calculated as urine albumin divided by urine creatinine. Albuminuria is defined as UACR ≥ 30 mg/g.

Serum Creatinine

Serum creatinine values used for eGFR calculation were standardized against isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS).

Urine Albumin

Measured in random urine collection by fluorescent immunoassay.

Age Standardization

Estimates were standardized to the 2010 U.S. Census population for adults by age category (18−39 years, 40−59 years, 60−69 years, and 70+ years).

Limitations of Indicator

Albuminuria and kidney function were assessed from one-time cross-sectional measurements, possibly overestimating CKD prevalence.

Analytical Considerations

Appropriate NHANES survey weights were used for all analyses; if relative standard error is greater than 30%, the estimates are not shown. Serum creatinine measurements are assay corrected for NHANES years 2005 and 2006 and prior to be combined with later years.