In 2015-2016, the crude prevalence of overweight and obesity was high for all age groups, with prevalence being 65% or greater across all categories. However, crude prevalence was highest in adults aged 60-69-years (77%).
Males were more likely than females to be overweight or have obesity (75% vs. 69%); Mexican-Americans (83% respectively) were more likely than non-Hispanic blacks (75%) and non-Hispanic whites (71%) to be overweight or have obesity.
Chart Explanation: In 2015-2016, crude prevalence of overweight and obesity was high for all age groups, with adults aged 60-69-years having the highest prevalence (76.8%). Males had a higher prevalence of being overweight (36.8% vs. 27.3% in females), but had a lower percentage of obesity than females (38.0% vs. 41.4%). Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic blacks had higher prevalences of obesity (49.3% and 46.8%) compared to non-Hispanic whites (38.6%). As well, Mexican-Americans had the highest prevalence for overweight adults (33.8%) when compared to non-Hispanic white (32.6%) and non-Hispanic black (28.2%) adults. The crude prevalence of overweight and obesity varied by age (P<.001), but not by gender and race/ethnicity.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that is currently conducted every 2 years by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics to examine disease prevalence and trends over time in noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian residents.
Obesity is a risk factor for both diabetes and hypertension, the two main causes of CKD among adults in the United States. Additionally, there is some evidence that obesity is an independent risk factor for CKD (Eknoyan, 2011; Hsu et al., 2006; Gelber et al., 2005; Foster et al., 2008), although some of the risk may be explained by shared CVD risk factors (Sowers et al., 2011). Particularly, abdominal obesity has been shown to be associated with increased prevalence of proteinuria but not necessarily associated with CKD progression or decline in renal function (Bonnet et al., 2006; Lea et al., 2008; deBoer et al., 2007). Since obesity appears to increase the likelihood of both CKD and CKD risk factors, assessing the burden of this risk factor is important in CKD surveillance. The survey consists of a standardized in-home interview and a physical examination and blood and urine collection at a mobile examination center (MEC). Here we examined data from the 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2015-2016 NHANES. Both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured in non-pregnant adult (20+) participants. Overweight and obesity were defined by BMI ≥25 and ≥30 kg/m². Abdominal obesity were defined by waist circumference measurements of >102 cm (~40 inches) and >88 cm (~35 inches) for men and women, respectively.
|Description of Measure||Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the general adult population|
|Type of Data Source||Public|
|Health Care System Data||No|
|Regional or National?||National|
|Demographic Group||Non-institutionalized U.S. residents aged 20+ years|
|Numerator||Non-pregnant participants 20+ with measured BMI (kg/m²) >25 [overweight] or >30 [obese], or waist circumference>102 cm (males) and >88 cm (females)|
|Denominator||Non-pregnant participants 20+ with measured BMI or waist circumference|
|Primary Data Source Indicator||bmxbmi: measured BMI|
|Primary Indicator Method of Measurement||MEC exam anthropometric protocol; ages 2+|
|Secondary Data Source Indicator||bmiwaist: measured waist circumference (cm)|
|Secondary Indicator Method of Measurement||MEC exam anthropometric protocol; ages 2+|
|Frequency of Measurement (Primary)||Once (cross-sectional)|
|U.S. Region Covered by Primary Variable||All|
|Period Currently Available||1999–2016|
|Additional Data Items of Interest||stratification variables of interest (age, gender, race/ethnicity)|
|Limitations of Indicator||BMI limited in those with high muscle mass; no waist:hip ratio or body fat % measurement (except triceps skin fold, which is not widely accepted)|
|Analytic Considerations||Appropriate NHANES survey weights must be used for all analyses|
References and Sources:
Eknoyan G. Obesity and chronic kidney disease. Nefrologia. 2011;31(4):397-403.
Sowers JR, Whaley-Connell A, Hayden MR. The Role of Overweight and Obesity in the Cardiorenal Syndrome. Cardiorenal Med. 2011;1(1):5-12.
Hsu CY, McCulloch CE, Iribarren C, Darbinian J, Go AS. Body mass index and risk for end-stage renal disease. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144(1):21-8.
Gelber RP, Kurth T, Kausz AT, et al. Association between body mass index and CKD in apparently healthy men. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;46(5):871-80.
Foster MC, Hwang SJ, Larson MG, et al. Overweight, obesity, and the development of stage 3 CKD: The Framingham Heart Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;52(1):39-48.
Lea J, Cheek D, Thornley-Brown D, et al. Metabolic syndrome, proteinuria, and the risk of progressive CKD in hypertensive African-Americans. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;51(5):732-40.
de Boer IH, Sibley SD, Kestenbaum B, et al. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study Research Group. Central obesity, incident microalbuminuria, and change in creatinine clearance in the epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18(1):235-43.