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Trends in Prevalence of CKD among U.S. Adults

Trends in Prevalence of CKD among U.S. Adults

Crude prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among adults aged ≥ 18 years was 13.9% during 2017–March 2020 compared to 12.9% during 2001–2004. Crude prevalence was higher in adults aged ≥ 70 years, women, non-Hispanic Black adults, and adults with diabetes or hypertension than that in their counterparts. Crude prevalence of CKD was 38.4% among adults aged ≥ 70 years during 2017–March 2020 and 47.1% during 2001–2004. Non-Hispanic Black adults show the highest crude prevalence of CKD over time compared with other racial and ethnic groups. Crude prevalence of CKD showed a downward trend until March 2017–2020 among adults with diabetes while it remained constant among adults with hypertension.

Data Source: NHANES

To view the prevalence of CKD by risk categories, select from the drop-down menu below. Risk categories include: Overall, Age Category, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Diabetes, and Hypertension.

CKD (%), Overall

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Data includes CKD stages 1–5. Age-standardized estimates were standardized to the 2010 U.S. Census population for adults.

NHANES is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that is currently conducted every two years (since 1999) by CDC's National Center for Health Statistics among noninstitutionalized US civilian residents. The survey consists of a standardized in-home interview and a physical examination with blood and urine collected at a mobile examination center. Data were examined by combining two NHANES cycles to represent four-year periods from 2001 to 2016 and the 2017–March 2020 pre-pandemic cycle.

Note: Not all NHANES variables are collected for all years; therefore, some NHANES indicators may not utilize the full 20-year span.

Description of Measure

Prevalence of CKD stages 1–5 in the U.S. population.

Data Set

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).


Noninstitutionalized U.S. adults aged ≥ 18 years, pregnant women excluded.

Years Included

2001–March 2020.


Adults aged ≥ 18 years with CKD stages 1–5.


Adults aged ≥ 18 years with serum creatinine and urine albumin measurements.

Definition of CKD

CKD is defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m² or albuminuria (urine albumin to creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥30 mg/g). Estimates are based on single estimates of eGFR and UACR.

Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

Based on the CKD-EPI (2021) equation for calibrated creatinine: eGFR=142 x [min(serum creatinine in mg/dL) /κ, 1)]**α x [max(serum creatinine/κ, 1)]**-1.20 x 0.9938**age x (1.012 if female).

κ = 0.7 if female and 0.9 if male
α = -0.241 if female and -0.302 if male
** = raise to the power


UACR is calculated as urine albumin divided by urine creatinine. Albuminuria is defined as UACR ≥ 30 mg/g.

Serum Creatinine

Serum creatinine values used for eGFR calculation are standardized against isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS).

Urine Albumin

Measured in random urine collection by fluorescent immunoassay.


Diabetes is defined by self-report of diabetes, treatment with insulin or oral anti-diabetes medications, or HbA1c ≥ 6.5%.


Hypertension is defined by self-reported hypertension, treatment with hypertension medications, or average systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg (130 mmHg for CKD and diabetes) and diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mmHg (80 mmHg for CKD and diabetes).

Age Standardization

Age-standardized estimates were standardized to the 2010 U.S. Census population for adults. 18–39 years: 37.1%, 40–59 years: 38.1%, 60–69 years: 12.8%, and 70+ years: 12.0%.

Limitations of Indicator

Albuminuria and kidney function are assessed from one-time cross-sectional measurements, possibly overestimating CKD prevalence. 

Analytical Considerations

Appropriate NHANES survey weights are used for all analyses; if the relative standard error is greater than 30%, the estimates are not shown. Serum creatinine measurements are assay corrected for NHANES years 2005 and 2006 and prior to be combined with later years.

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