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Indicator Details — Native Americans: Crude Prevalence of Smokinga
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a  P<0.001 for comparison of prevalence by age and gender.

About one-third of this American Indian cohort were smoking at baseline, and prevalence of current smoking was higher among younger and male study participants.
Chart Explanation: About 34% of this American Indian cohort were smoking at baseline. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among younger and male study participants, relative to their counterparts.
The Strong Heart Study consisted of several components and three study exams (baseline, 1989-1992; second exam, 1993-1995; and third exam, 1998-1999), followed by morbidity and mortality surveillance of 4,500 tribal participants. Strong Heart enrolled men and women aged 45-74 at baseline from 13 American Indian tribes/communities in Arizona, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas. A total of 4,541 Strong Heart participants had baseline information on self-reported current smoking status.
Description of MeasurePrevalence of obesity
Data SourceStrong Heart Study
Type of Data SourcePrivate
Data SetSHS
Health Care System DataNo
Regional or National?National
Demographic GroupAmerican Indians aged 45-74 from 13 tribes/communities 
NumeratorNumber of participants currently smoking at baseline exam
DenominatorAll participants at baseline exam
Definition of CKD---
Glomerular filtration rate---
Primary Data Source IndicatorPercentage of participants reporting currently smoking at baseline exam
Primary Indicator Method of MeasurementQuestionnaire
Frequency of Measurement (Primary)Once (cross-sectional at baseline exam)
U.S. Region Covered by Primary VariableArizona, Oklahoma, and the Dakotas
Period Currently Available1989–1992
Pending DataPossible continued passive follow-up only
Additional Data Items of InterestAge, gender, diabetes, hypertension
Limitations of IndicatorSmoking may be under-reported
Analytical ConsiderationsAnalysis performed by SHS investigators; denominators for each study exam and indicator must be defined properly

Suggested Citation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Kidney Disease Surveillance System—United States.
website. http://www.cdc.gov/ckd