In 2016, the prevalence of treated ESRD increased dramatically with age (967 per million in 22-44 years to >7,000 per million in 65-74 years); males had a greater prevalence than females; and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders had a much greater prevalence of treated ESRD compared to all other racial groups.
Chart Explanation: The adjusted 2016 prevalence of ESRD increased dramatically with age, with young adults (22-44 years) having prevalence of approximately 967 per million, and older adults (65-74 years) having a prevalence of >7,000 per million. People aged 75+ years had a slightly lower prevalence (6,900 per million) than people aged 65-74 years, likely because of competing mortality risk with advanced age. Males had higher prevalence (~900 per million greater) of ESRD than females. Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders had the greatest prevalence of ESRD (approximately 15,600 per million) compared to all other racial groups. ESRD was most common in people with assigned causes of diabetes (783 per million) and hypertension (536 per million). People with glomerulonephritis (333 per million), cystic kidney (103 per million) and other assigned causes (including missing and unknown; <400 per million each) had lower but still substantially high prevalence of ESRD.
The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) is national registry of all patients treated for end-stage renal disease in the United States. It is sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) that reports prevalence of all treated ESRD in the United States. U.S. population denominators are determined through U.S. Census data. Tables from the USRDS annual report (United States Renal Data System, 2018
) are publicly available for download.
|Description of Measure||Prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Stage 5)|
|Data Source||USRDS (NIDDK/CMS)|
|Type of Data Source||Public|
|Health Care System Data||No|
|Regional or National?||National|
|Demographic Group||Medicare-eligible U.S. citizens with ESRD-related claims with known age, race/ethnicity, and gender|
|Numerator||As of December 31, point prevalent counts of patients reported to have ESRD without loss-to-follow up or recovery of renal function|
|Denominator||U.S. resident population from U.S. census from corresponding year|
|Definition of CKD||Stage 5, <15 ml/min/1.73 m² with Medicare-eligibility for ESRD-related treatment|
|Primary Data Source Indicator||Number of U.S. patients reported to have ESRD, as indicated by treatment (dialysis or functioning transplant)|
|Primary Indicator Method of Measurement||Claims|
|Frequency of Measurement (Primary)||Annual (cross-sectional)|
|U.S. Region Covered by Primary Variable||All|
|Period Currently Available||2016|
|Additional Data Items of Interest||Year, age (from date of birth), race/ethnicity (from Medicare 2728 form), gender (from Medicare 2728 form), assigned cause of ESRD (from Medicare 2728 form)|
|Limitations of Indicator||Only those who are Medicare-eligible are captured and eligibility may be delayed|
|Analytic Considerations||Denominators change with missing stratification variables|
|Adjustment||Estimates are adjusted for age, race, and gender, as appropriate, using the 2005 ESRD cohort as reference.|
References and Sources:
United States Renal Data System. 2017 USRDS annual data report: Epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 2017.
United States Renal Data System. 2018 USRDS annual data report: Epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 2018.