For the years 2014-2016 combined, the greatest causes of ESRD in individuals aged 21 years and younger are glomerulonephritis and “other cause,” which includes tumors, complications of transplanted organs, interstitial nephritis, and congenital disease. For the same period, individuals aged 22-44 years, the greatest causes of ESRD were glomerulonephritis (32%), diabetes (22%), and hypertension (22%).
Chart Explanation: Among those between 0 and 21 years of age, other causes - which includes tumors, complications of transplanted organs, interstitial nephritis, and congenital disease - and glomerulonephritis appeared to be the most common reported cause of ESRD for the years 2014-2016. Causes that were least frequently reported, for the same age group, were diabetes and hypertension. Whereas among individuals aged 22-44 years, the most common reported causes of ESRD were glomerulonephritis (32.0%), diabetes (21.6%), and hypertension (21.5%); while the least commonly reported causes was cystic kidney (3.2%). Differences may be attributed to diabetes and hypertension generally observed in those of older ages.
The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) is national registry of all patients treated for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States.
It is sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). U.S. population denominators are determined through U.S. Census data. Tables from the USRDS annual report (United States Renal Data System, 2018
) are publicly available for download.
|Description of Measure||Reported cause of ESRD among individuals aged 0 to 44 years of age|
|Data Source||USRDS (NIDDK/CMS)|
|Type of Data Source||Public|
|Health Care Data System||Yes|
|Regional or National?||National|
|Demographic Group||Medicare-eligible U.S. citizens with ESRD-related claims with known age, race/ethnicity, and gender|
|Numerator||Number of patients younger than 45 years of age reporting a specific cause of ESRD|
|Denominator||Individuals with ESRD who are 44 years of age or younger|
|Definition of CKD||Stage 5, <15 ml/min/1.73 m² with Medicare-eligibility for ESRD-related treatment|
|Primary Data Source Indicator||Number of patients reported a diagnosis of ESRD between 2012 and 2014|
|Primary Indicator Method of Measurement||Claims|
|Frequency of Measurement||Annual (cross-sectional)|
|U.S. Region Covered by Primary Variable||All|
|Period Currently Available||2011–2016|
|Additional Data Items of Interest||Year, age (from date of birth), race/ethnicity (from Medicare 2728 form), gender (from Medicare 2728 form), assigned cause of ESRD (from Medicare 2728 form), BMI|
|Limitations of Indicator||Only those who are Medicare-eligible are captured & eligibility may be delayed|
|Analytic Considerations||Denominators change with missing stratification variables|
References and Sources:
United States Renal Data System. 2018 USRDS annual data report: Epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 2018.
United States Renal Data System. 2019 USRDS annual data report: Epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 2019.