Indicator Details: Percentage of African Americans Correctly Naming CKD Risk Factorsa,b
Data Sources
 
Stratification and Year Choices:

  Source
  • NKDEP

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  Chart Format


Published literature or one-time analysis, ongoing surveillance not available Published literature or one-time analysis, ongoing surveillance not available

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Footnotes:
a Adapted from Waterman et al. (2008).

b P<0.001 (with risk factors vs. no risk factors) by χ² test for diabetes and hypertension.




Only one-third (33%) of surveyed African-Americans with diabetes named diabetes as a risk factor for CKD; furthermore, only 17% of those with hypertension and 4% of those with family history named these risk factors for CKD.
Chart Explanation: Although nearly 100% of respondents felt that unmanaged diabetes and hypertension could lead to serious negative effects on their health, only 16.9% and 7.5%, respectively, named kidney disease or failure as one of these consequences. Knowledge of CKD risk factors was generally low, with only 18.1% of all respondents naming African-American race/ethnicity as a CKD risk factor. The figure shows that knowledge of other CKD risk factors is also low, even among those with risk factors. Only 13.6%, 12.2%, and 2.4% named diabetes, hypertension, and family history, respectively, as risk factors for CKD. However, those with the risk factor were more likely than those without the risk factor to name diabetes (32.7% vs. 10.7%; P<0.001), hypertension (17.0% vs. 9.7%; P<0.001), and family history (3.6% vs. 2.2%; P=0.156) as risk factors.
The National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP; http://www.nkdep.nih.gov/) surveyed 2,017 African-Americans aged 30+ in seven U.S. cities (Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Cleveland, OH; Jackson, MS; New Orleans, LA, St. Louis, MO; Memphis, TN) regarding knowledge of CKD and its risk factors. Females and college graduates were over-represented relative to the U.S. population of African-Americans.

In the period February-April 2003, the National Kidney Disease Education Program (http://www.nkdep.nih.gov/) surveyed 2,017 (of 4,761 eligible households, cooperation rate 42.2%) African-Americans aged 30+ in seven U.S. cities (Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Cleveland, OH; Jackson, MS; New Orleans, LA, St. Louis, MO; Memphis, TN) regarding knowledge of CKD and its risk factors (Waterman, Browne, Waterman, Gladstone, & Hostetter, 2008). Females and college graduates were over-represented (72.4% and 37.9%, respectively) relative to the U.S. population of African-Americans. A total of 903 respondents (44.8%) reported having kidney disease or one or more of its risk factors: 13.4% with diabetes, 34.5% with hypertension, 11.2% with family history of kidney disease, and only 1.1% with kidney disease, indicating that those with kidney disease may be underrepresented in this survey population. Participants were asked several open-ended questions, including: “In your opinion, what are the three most serious health problems facing African-Americans today?”; “Have you ever heard of an illness called kidney disease?”; “Can you tell me what you think kidney disease is?”; “How would someone know they have kidney disease?”; “Do you know what kind of tests a person can have to test for kidney disease?”; “Who do you think is more likely to get kidney disease or is at a higher risk for kidney disease?”. Participants were also asked about their perceived risk: “How would you rate your risk for getting kidney disease? Would you say it is higher than average, lower or about average?”
FieldData
Description of MeasureKnowledge of CKD and CKD risk in the African-American community
Data SourceNational Kidney Disease Education Program
Type of Data SourcePrivate
Data SetSurvey results
Health Care System DataNo
Regional or National?Regional
Demographic GroupAfrican-Americans aged 30+; 72.4% female
NumeratorRespondents naming CKD as an important health problem/respondents with risk factors who rated their kidney disease risk as “higher than average”
DenominatorAll respondents/respondents with risk factors
Primary Data Source IndicatorProportion of African-Americans surveyed who rated CKD as an important health problem/who reported their kidney disease risk “higher than average”
Primary Indicator Method of MeasurementSurvey (random-digit dialed telephone survey)
Frequency of Measurement (Primary)Once (cross-sectional)
U.S. Region Covered by Primary Variable7 U.S. cities (Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; Cleveland, OH; Jackson, MS; New Orleans, LA, St. Louis, MO; Memphis, TN)
Period Currently Available2003
Pending DataUnknown
Additional Data Items of InterestAge, gender, education, other risk factors (hypertension, family history)
Limitations of IndicatorUrban African-American only, females over-represented; likely survey response bias (42.4% cooperation rate among households reached)
Analytical ConsiderationsCategories lumped due to small groups/missing responses for some questions
References and Sources:
  • Waterman AD, Browne T, Waterman BM, Gladstone EH, Hostetter T. Attitudes and behaviors of African Americans regarding early detection of kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008;51(4):554-62.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18371531
Suggested Citation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Kidney Disease Surveillance System—United States.
website. http://www.cdc.gov/ckd