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Indicator Details: Prevalence of Treated End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) per Million U.S. Residentsa
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a Adapted from the 2020 USRDS Annual Data Report (United States Renal Data System, 2020).

As of December 31, 2018, ~0.7 million patients (785,883) were being treated for end stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States, giving a point prevalence of 2,382 per million population; prevalence of dialysis treatment was 1,685 per million, whereas prevalence of functioning kidney transplant was 696 per million.

The prevalence of ESRD more than tripled between 1990 and 2018.

Chart Explanation: 

Shown is the point prevalence of ESRD in the United States from 2000 to 2018, by treatment. The overall point prevalence increased from 1,280 per million in 2000 to 2,382 per million in 2018. Adjustment for known age, gender, race/ethnicity gives a 2016-2018 combined adjusted prevalence of 2,269 per million.

The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) is national registry of all patients treated for end-stage renal disease in the United States. It is sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK) and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) that reports prevalence of all treated ESRD in the United States. U.S. population denominators are determined through U.S. Census data. Tables from the USRDS annual report (United States Renal Data System, 2020) are publicly available for download.

Description of MeasurePrevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Stage 5)
Type of Data SourcePublic
Health Care System DataNo
Regional or National?National
Demographic GroupMedicare-eligible U.S. citizens with ESRD-related claims with known age, race/ethnicity, and gender
NumeratorAs of December 31, point prevalent counts of patients reported to have ESRD without loss-to-follow up or recovery of renal function
DenominatorU.S. resident population from U.S. census from corresponding year
Definition of CKDStage 5, <15 ml/min/1.73 m² with Medicare-eligibility for ESRD-related treatment
Primary Data Source IndicatorNumber of U.S. patients reported to have ESRD, as indicated by treatment (dialysis or functioning transplant)
Primary Indicator Method of MeasurementClaims
Frequency of Measurement (Primary)Annual (cross-sectional)
U.S. Region Covered by Primary VariableAll
Period Currently Available


Pending Data


Additional Data Items of InterestYear, age (from date of birth), race/ethnicity (from Medicare 2728 form), gender (from Medicare 2728 form), assigned cause of ESRD (from Medicare 2728 form)
Limitations of IndicatorOnly those who are Medicare-eligible are captured & eligibility may be delayed
Analytic Considerations

Denominators change with missing stratification variables.

Data for Prior Years (1990-1999) were prepared at an earlier time period.

References and Sources:
  • United States Renal Data System. 2020 USRDS Annual Data Report: Epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 2020.

Suggested Citation:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chronic Kidney Disease Surveillance System—United States.
website. http://www.cdc.gov/ckd