ADI (Area of Dominant Influence)
In the measurement of television and radio audience data, ADI refers to the geographic area that includes all of the counties influenced by originating stations in a particular television market. For example, the New York ADI is composed of all the counties in New York and New Jersey where New York City television stations are viewed. Each county in the United States is assigned to just one ADI.
Distribution of a persuasive message about a product, service, or idea to a targeted group of people through paid placement in one or more communication mediums that may include television, radio, print, billboard, Web, mobile phone apps, social networks, theater display, etc. See: Advertising.
Material Groupo, Ad Group, or Photo Group
Ads on the Media Center are classified as follows:
Current - Newer and more frequently used ads/materials.
Archive - Older, infrequently used ads/materials.
Not Available - Ads/materials that are not available for use, but listed for research and information purposes only.
Distribution of a persuasive message about a product, service, or idea to a targeted group of people. See: Advertisement.
American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA)
AFTRA is a national labor union representing more than 70,000 performers, journalists and other artists working in the entertainment and news media. AFTRA's scope of representation covers broadcast, public and cable television, radio, sound recordings, non-broadcast and industrial material, as well as Internet and digital programming. See: SAG.
A broadcast rating service for television and radio used to measure audience size and demographics.
Refers to research conducted to determine message resonance, effectiveness, or unintended effects with a target audience usually before ad/material or campaign messages are fully produced. Audience testing may include focus groups, panels, surveys, person-on-the-street intercepts, etc. Audience research increases the likelihood that objectives will be achieved while also decreasing the likelihood of unexpected negative outcomes.
The process of grouping an audience by characteristics (e.g., geographic region, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, psychographics, product usage). Knowing targeted audience segments informs focused media messages that are more likely to attract the attention and achieve the desired reaction of your target audience.
A form of advertising commonly used on the Internet. The advertiser's website is often imbedded in the ad/material to drive users to the site and track the ad's/material's reach and effectiveness in driving other traffic to the site or completing the requested activity or call to action.
A common name for outdoor signs located along streets and highways.
A printing term that refers to printing to the edge of the page, leaving no margin.
Short for "web log", a blog is an online journal in the form of a website or part of a website. Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regularly posted comments, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video.
The text of a print or Web advertisement/material, news, or feature story.
Broadcast (or Mass) Media
Media that reaches a broad audience simultaneously. Broadcast media may include television, radio, satellite, social media, and the Internet.
Bus King or Bus Board
A type of outdoor advertising designed for the outside of buses. See: Transit Advertising.
Talent, music, or photo licensing and usage rights are universally purchased—or "bought out"—fully or for a specified period of time and enables all geographic areas to use ads/materials free from additional fees.
The highest quality art, copy, photo or graphic. If it is "camera-ready", it is of sufficient quality to be reproduced in a mass publication.
A strategically designed advertising or promotional initiative that uses multiple media touch points to achieve its objectives. A single campaign generally is based around one common theme.
For publications, the total number of copies that are distributed during a specific time period (e.g., monthly, annually). See: Reach, Gross Ratings Points, Target Ratings Points.
Click-Through Rate (CTR)
A way of measuring how many visitors to a website click on an ad/material or link. A CTR is obtained by dividing the number of users who clicked on a Web link or ad/material on a Web page by the number of visitors to the site.
Ancillary material used to support and reinforce a media advertising campaign such as tool kits, tent cards, static clings (other promotional items—e.g., imprinted pens, mugs, notepads, table toppers), presentation charts, news releases, letters, films, catalogs, booklets, trade show exhibits, point-of-purchase displays, buttons, widgets, and other Web-based materials.
A unit of publication space 1-column wide and 1-inch long.
A paid advertisement or promotional announcement aired on radio or television. See: Advertisement, Ad.
The text of an advertisement or news article. See: Body Copy.
A legal term referring to protection granted by the U.S. Copyright Office to an individual or organization to protect against the use of an original, protected work without expressed consent. See: Registered Trademark, Patent.
In the Media Center, refers to the cost to secure talent, music or photography licensing, and usage rights to use an ad/material.
A search option in the Media Center that enables users to identify ads/materials within their budget by selecting from a price list the maximum amount their budget will allow.
Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
A cost-efficiency measure that indicates an estimated cost of reaching 1,000 readers, viewers, or listeners through an advertisement.
An ad/material or campaign designed to "counter" or oppose another product or position. See: Counter- Marketing.
Refers to integrated marketing and communication efforts aimed at countering the marketing efforts of an entity that opposes or competes with another product or position. See: Counter Advertising.
The percentage of households or individuals in a defined area that have access to a specific advertising medium.
Date an ad/material or campaign is included in the Media Center.
Year an ad/material or campaign was created.
Refers to the segments of the broadcast day such as television primetime—between 8:00 PM and 11:00 PM or early fringe—between 5:00 PM and 7:00 PM. Day parts are usually delineated by audience reached and impacts the cost of advertising. For example, "morning drive time" covers 6:00 AM—9:00 AM, Monday–Friday. Morning drive time targets those driving to work and listening to the radio; therefore, it is one of the most expensive day parts to buy radio advertising. See: Drive Time, Early Fringe.
Refers to the brief, 100 words or less summary of the advertisement or campaign in the Media Center.
Designated Market Area (DMA)
A geographic area defined by Nielsen Media Research Company as a group of counties that make up a particular television market. For the most part, the metropolitan areas correspond to the standard metropolitan statistical areas defined by the federal government Office of Management and Budget. DMAs are used in the evaluating audience data as well as in the planning and buying of media. See: ADI.
The peak period for radio listenership. Drive time is normally 6:00 AM–10:00 AM, and 3:00 PM–7:00 PM, when people are driving to, or home from, work.
The television day part between daytime and primetime, generally between 5:00 PM–7:00 PM.
PUBLICATION or broadcast of a story without payment for placement. This coverage is called earned media because it is achieved through development of materials (e.g., letters to the editor, op-eds, press releases) and working with reporters by holding press conferences, or proactively pitching the story.
Enables users to search the Media Center for evidence-based ads/materials or campaigns targeted to specific ethnic groups.
Tone of the advertisement/material (e.g., humorous, serious, motivational).
A social networking website launched in February 2004 operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc. See: Social Network.
Preparing printed pages for use. Most printed jobs require one or more finishing steps (e.g., trimming, folding, binding).
A basic, uniform charge for advertising space or time, with no discounts for volume or frequency.
A period of time during which a concentration of radio or television commercials are aired. For example, TV spots may be "flighted" every 3 months for a 3-week period.
Refers to the type of media or electronic file format of the final, fully produced ad/material. For example, portable data format (.pdf), Windows media files (.wmv), Quicktime (.mov), or beta videotape.
Frequency (of Exposure)
The number of times a targeted audience is exposed to a specific advertising message over a specified period of time. Frequency and reach are two of the most important variables used to measure advertising impact. See: Reach, GRP.
A measurable outcome that an advertisement/material or campaign is designed to achieve. An effective goal should be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-sensitive.
Gross Ratings Points (GRPs)
An estimate of the overall percentage of individuals, including those outside the target audience that will be exposed to a television or radio commercial. GRPs are calculated by multiplying Reach times Frequency. See: Frequency, Reach, Target Ratings Points, and Circulation.
A minimum circulation level guaranteed by print publications.
All persons living under one roof.
In online media, impression refers to each time an advertisement/material loads on a user's screen. For example, each time a banner advertisement is viewed, it is an impression. See: Unique Visitors.
The date a print advertisement/material will appear in a publication. See: Tear Sheet.
In print advertising, a space reservation that indicates the insertion date, position, and size of the print advertisement/material.
Industry Standard Coding Identification (ISCI)
The standard codes used to identify and track placement of specific radio and television ads/materials — a "barcode" for ads/materials.
The main idea the communication is intended to convey.
Words that capture the essence of a topic of a document. Keywords are used to help retrieve information or materials in a database or search engine.
The expiration date of advertising materials. Kill dates notify media outlets that an advertisement/material should not be broadcast or placed after a specific date.
A search team that enables an advertisement/material in the Media Center to be identified by the language(s) in which it is available.
A TV day part that follows primetime, usually from 11:30 PM–1:30 AM. See: Day parts, Fringe.
The time period between when an ad/material is required to be submitted to a media outlet and when it actually runs. For example, a TV ad (spot) may need to be RECEIVED at the station 72 hours before scheduled broadcast while print publications may require several months lead time.
For television or radio, the duration of the ad—measured in exact seconds or frames of video—including any local tags. Standard television and radio ads are typically 15, 30, or 60 seconds in length.
Live Announcer Spots
A type of radio advertising in which the sponsor supplies a script to be read live on the air by the station announcer or radio personality.
Live Announcer Tag
A disc jockey or announcer from the radio station comes "on the air" and reads the sponsor's identification, and in some cases, contact information "live" after the produced spot is played. See: Tag, Tagging.
Substitute airtime that is given to the advertiser at no additional cost to make up for a commercial that did not air during a day part that the advertiser purchased.
Media Plan or Media Strategy
A part of the overall communication plan that details how various media will be used. It identifies the specific schedule, including the times and programs during which television and radio ads will run, what and when social media will be used, the locations and sizes of billboards, and the publications and placement where print ads/materials will run, etc. The media plan also contains a summary of expected target audience reach and frequency. See: Gross Ratings Points, Target Rating Points.
Media Type or Medium
Refers to the type of media used to communicate the message. For example, television, radio, Web, social media, billboards, magazine ads/materials, letters to the editor, etc. This also is referred to as media vehicle, media channel, or media outlet.
In broadcasting, a group of stations affiliated by ownership or contract and usually interconnected for the simultaneous broadcasting of programs (e.g., NBC, ABC, CBS, Clear Channel). See: Publisher.
A media research company that measures consumer activity and engagement in retail, television, online, mobile, cross-platform, and radio media as well as consumer confidence levels for all markets in the United States.
What the ad/material or campaign is designed to achieve. Objectives should advance programmatic priorities.
Refers to communication over the Internet that offers an instantaneous transmission of messages from sender to receiver.
A virtual community that exists online. An online community can take the form of an information system where anyone can post content such as a bulletin board system or one where only a restricted number of people can initiate posts. Examples include Web logs, gaming, and other platforms (e.g., Second Life).
In print advertising, the highest rate for placing an advertisement/material.
A recommendation on where and when an ad/material should be placed. Recommendations are made on the basis of factors such as the target audience, key messages, and the media used to reach the target audience. See: Preferred Position.
Signs or billboards placed along streets and highways.
Primarily print advertising seen outside of the home. Examples include billboards, taxis, bus shelters, buses, and in transit stations, airports, and malls.
Paid Advertising or Paid Media
Ads that the advertiser pays to place in a specific location or at a specific time. Because they are paid, the advertiser controls the placement, making them useful in targeting specific audience segments.
A publication's audience consisting of those readers who have not received a copy by purchase or request. Pass-along readers may receive copies from the original subscriber or purchaser (e.g., family member, waiting room, public library). The total audience of a publication is the sum of its paid and nonpaid subscribers as well as its pass-along readers.
A set of exclusive rights granted by a state or national government to an inventor or creator or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention or project.
A measure of the proportion of the target market that saw the ad/material and can remember a significant part of the message. Penetration can be measured through consumer surveys, interviews, focus groups, or other tools.
A unit of measurement for type and printed materials. Six picas equal 1 inch. Smaller point sizes (less than 12 point) can make ad/material copy difficult to read.
A unit of measurement for type and printed materials. Twelve points equal 1 pica.
In marketing and communication, positioning is the process of creating a positive image or identity for a specific product, brand, organization or idea in the minds of members of the target audience.
Post-Buy Report (aka Affidavit)
A report to advertisers that identifies the exact times, dates, positions, programs, and estimated dollar value of the airtime or exposure in which the advertiser's ads/materials were broadcast or published.
In online communication, posting refers to the publication of copy, photographs, videos, or other media to a website or other social media vehicle.
A highly visible and desirable advertising position within a publication, on air or online. For example, the back cover of a magazine, the first position in a series of television or radio ads broadcast during a commercial break, or a banner ad/material across the top of a website's home page. Advertisers pay a premium price for these preferred positions. See: Optimal Placement.
Readers who purchased a magazine or who are members of a household in which the publication was purchased.
In television, a continuous period of time not less than 3 hours per broadcast day as designated by the station. This is usually considered to be from 8:00 PM–11:00 PM EST, 7:00 PM–10:00 PM CST, and 8:00 PM–11:00 PM PST.
Print Ad/Material Dimensions Classifications
The standard sizes of magazine and newspaper print ads/materials include the following:
8-1/2" x 11" or 8-1/2" x 11" spread (finish is 11" x 17").
11" x 17" (tabloid size) or 11" x 17" spread (finish is 17" x 22").
Full Page, 7" x 9".
Half-page, 5-1/2" x 8-1/2" horizontal or 8-1/2" x 5-1/2" vertical.
Quarter-page, 5-1/2" x 4-1/4" vertical.
Many ads/materials can be adjusted somewhat for slightly different page sizes. See: Finishing, Spread.
Ad agency or organization that produced (created) the advertisement/material.
The organization or entity that paid for the production of the ad/material or campaign.
Date that the ad/material was completed and ready for distribution.
Produced Radio Spot
Radio advertisement that has been prerecorded and is self-contained and ready for broadcast.
The practice of organizing television or radio shows into a daily, weekly, or season-long schedule. Programming also can refer to the technical process by which websites, mobile technologies, and other Internet-based communication tools are created.
A copy of a print or Web advertisement/material or story as it will appear once it has been produced or printed. A proof is generally created for review and approval purposes. See: Rough Cut.
Public Service Announcement (PSA)
Any communication intended for the public good that is aired or published free of charge. This usually refers to commercials intended for nonpaid placement on television or radio as well as nonpaid placement in magazines, newspapers, on the Internet, and out-of-home vehicles.
The business head of a newspaper organization or publishing house, commonly the owner or the representative of the owner.
The statement of a publication's circulation. Reports are issued by the Audit Bureau of Circulation twice a year.
A card issued by an advertising medium listing its rates, requirements, and information concerning possible advertising with the company. The "card" usually contains the highest advertising rates and is usually negotiated down from this starting point.
A rating indicates the estimated percentage of the population that has the opportunity to be exposed to the advertising message. See: Gross Ratings Points, Target Ratings Points.
Reach is the number or percentage of people exposed to an ad/material or campaign within a particular time frame (often a 4-week flight). Reach should not be confused with the number of people who will consume the advertising. Reach may be stated either as an absolute number, or as a fraction of a given population (e.g., TV households, men, adults aged 25–35 years).
Information on an audience experience with or in response to an ad/material. This may include information such as the number of exposures, calls generated, or anecdotal information on public response to the ad/material. For example, a hotline may track the number of incoming calls received that can be directly linked to the broadcast of a PSA.
A print publication's circulation multiplied by its pass-along audience, normally expressed in "readers per copy" (RPC).
The extent to which the target audience remembers seeing or hearing a message or advertisement/material. Recall may be one determinant of the effectiveness of an ad/material or campaign.
This ad or material is a view-only ad and cannot be ordered. It is included in the Media Center as an example or for inspiration.
Registered Trademark (Trademark or Trade-Mark)
A distinctive sign or indicator (™) used by an individual, business organization, or other legal entity to identify that the products or services in which the trademark appears originate from a unique source and to distinguish the products or services from those of other entities. A trademark is typically a name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, design, image, or a combination of these elements. It also is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is readily identified. The owner of a registered trademark may commence legal proceedings for trademark infringement to prevent unauthorized use of that trademark.
Correcting or improving photographs or other artwork.
An incomplete and early version of a television or radio advertisement or program usually created for review and approval.
Run of Press (ROP)
ROP ads/materials are inserted into the layout and printed in the regular print run of a newspaper (as opposed to being run as a separate insert). Classified ads are an example of ROP ads.
Run of Station (ROS)
Broadcast placement of an advertisement in any spot that comes open throughout the broadcast day. This is usually one of the least expensive advertising rates because there is no promise of what times the ads will run.
A media strategy of distributing advertisements of intense frequency over a relatively short period of time. It implies simultaneous achievement of wide-reach and frequency designed to achieve maximum coverage.
Screen Actors Guild (SAG)
The union representing actors.
The written text of a television or radio advertisement, often including character dialogue, audio and visual effects, graphic elements, and narration.
Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
The process of improving the visibility of a website or a Web page in a search engine via keywords or algorithmic search results. In general, the earlier—or higher on the page—and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will attract from the search engine's users.
Secondary Target Audience/Influencers
Groups that have some influence or control over the primary target audience. For example, if youth aged 12 to 17 years are the primary target audience, a secondary target audience might be teachers, coaches, or parents. Secondary target audiences also can be groups that are specific subcategories within the primary target audience that need their own communication strategies, messages, and media vehicles. For example, if youth aged 12 to 17 years are the primary target audience, Hispanic youth could be a secondary target audience.
A printed item legally capable of traveling by U.S. mail without an envelope or other packaging (e.g., postcard).
A group of visually related ads/materials that are produced to convey a specific message and are part of the same campaign.
Location or scene where the ad/material or campaign is set. For example, the setting for a commercial about physical education could be in a school or on a soccer field.
A measurement of audience exposure to out-of-home advertising (e.g., billboards, bus cards, etc.). A showing is the daily total of the advertisement's reach times the frequency of audience exposure to it. See: Reach, Frequency, Target Ratings Points, Group Ratings Points, Readership.
Tagging of out-of-home advertising. Usually consists of a sticker with the sponsoring organization's information and is placed directly on the ad/material, sometimes to cover up an existing tag. See: Reach, Frequency, Target Ratings Points, Gross Ratings Points, Rating, Readership.
Media vehicle that uses online and mobile social interaction and communication techniques to deliver messaging. Social media uses Web- and mobile-technologies to create interactive dialogue about a product, service, concept or position with highly targeted populations. Examples of social media include forums and online communities, blogs and microblogs, social networks, multimedia sharing, social bookmarking, RSS readers, and mobile application.
Social Media Strategies
Strategies designed specifically for use with social media used regularly by the target audience. Social media strategies may be a stand-alone campaign or tied to an integrated campaign using both traditional and social media.
An online social structure made up of individuals or organizations connected by one or more interests or topic areas, such as friendship, kinship, common interests, beliefs, knowledge, or prestige.
The deadline for ordering advertising space in publications.
Another term for a broadcast advertisement.
A design that encompasses two or more facing pages (e.g., the center spread in the morning newspaper). This also is called a double truck.
State and Community Health Media Center (Media Center)
An online repository of advertisements and support materials produced by state and local health departments, nonprofit organizations, and federal agencies related to physical activity, nutrition, obesity, and other chronic diseases.
Designated time between network programs or within programs set aside for local station identification.
A function on social media websites such as Facebook that enables users to inform their social networks of their whereabouts, actions, or state of being.
A panel or series of panels on which a set of sketches or pictures is arranged depicting consecutively the important changes of scene or action for a television commercial. The storyboard is often accompanied by the script. Storyboards are also used to visually depict a user's experience when interacting with a website, mobile application, video game, or other interactive technology.
Strategy or Plan
A plan that informs the development and distribution of an ad/material or campaign. The strategy includes specific goals and objectives, evaluation criteria, details concerning the target audience, and the key messages. It also includes the media tools that will be used as well as how, when, where, and with what frequency they will be deployed.
Super (Superimposed Words)
A visual text tag, usually in the final frames of a television commercial.
A special newspaper, feature section, magazine, or journal usually in magazine format and often distributed in Sunday editions.
The sponsor's identification and in some cases, contact information. A tag usually appears at the end of a broadcast spot or at a designated location on print materials. Ads/materials in the Media Center are produced to allow local agencies or organizations to "tag" the ad/material with their identification information.
Tagging (or Tag Time)
Length of time available on a television or radio advertisement to add a local sponsor identification or tag.
Refers to actors, spokespersons, models, musicians, or other performers used in ads/materials or other promotional pieces.
A company that represents and promotes performers. Talent agencies are engaged in the audition; employment; and payment of actors, voice performers, musicians, and other performers used in advertising and other communication materials.
Target Audience or Primary Target Audience
The specific group that an advertiser is attempting to reach and influence (e.g., adults aged 25–54 years, women aged 18–24 years).
Target Market Profile
A demographic and psychographic description of a target market.
Target Rating Points (TRPs)
An estimate of the percentage of the target audience that will be exposed to a television or radio commercial.
A page containing an advertisement that is removed from a publication and sent to an advertiser, allowing the advertiser to see how the ad/material appeared.
Results from focus groups, message testing, surveys, intercept interviews, and other market research to gauge the potential effectiveness and impact of a message, concept, or advertisement.
The subject or topic conveyed in an advertisement/material or campaign.
A descriptive general heading that identifies the advertisement/material or campaign (i.e., what the advertisement/material is called).
Special instructions, usage restrictions or considerations the advertiser gives to broadcast stations regarding the placement of the advertisement/material (e.g., PSA use only).
A form of out-of-home advertising that includes placement of ads/materials on buses and in bus shelters and train stations.
Text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the user's profile page on Twitter.com and distributed with hash tags for ease of finding and following a discussion.
A website, owned and operated by Twitter, Inc., offering social networking and micro blogging services that enable users to send and read messages called tweets. See: Tweets.
Union (or Nonunion ) Talent
Refers to the type of agreement under which talent appearing in an ad/material or campaign works. The fees for using union talent are generally higher depending upon how broadly the ad/material or campaign is distributed and for how long it is used. Union talent also may be more efficient and professional in their performance, which may result in a higher quality ad/material or campaign.
Unique Visitor (Unique User)
Individual visitor to a website who is counted as a single visitor regardless of the number of times he or she revisits the site.
When commercials air during higher-rated viewing day parts instead of during the lower-rated day parts that were purchased. See: Value Added.
Extra feature(s) of an item of interest (product, service, person, etc.) that go beyond the standard expectations and provide something "more" while adding little or nothing to the cost.
A voice or voices used to deliver the audio portion of a video message. The voiceover talent does not appear on camera but rather performs the script while viewers watch video footage, graphics, animation, or other visuals that further illustrate the message the voiceover talent is delivering.
Media Center Glossary Sources
About AFTRA. AFTRA Special Notice. 2011. Available at http://www.aftra.com/aboutaftra.htm.
Conner DM. It's a Business First—and a Creative Outlet Second. Irving, TX: ITVA; 1993.
Cutlip SM, Center AH, Broom GM. Effective Public Relations. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education; 2006.
Dictionary and Thesaurus—Merriam-Webster Online. 2018. Available at http://www.merriam-webster.com/.
Hillard RL. Writing for Television and Radio. 5th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; 1991.
Meeske MD, Norris RC. Copywriting for the Electronic Media: a Practical Guide. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; 1992.
BusinessDictionary.com—Online Business Dictionary. .What Is Household? Definition and Meaning. 2011. Available at http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/household.html.
Zettl H. Television Production Handbook. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; 1997.